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Eras Journal - Veldmeijer, A.:Archaeologically attested cordage. Terminology on the basis of the material from Ptolemaic and Roman Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast)

Archaeologically attested cordage. Terminology on the basis of the material from Ptolemaic and Roman Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast)

André J. Veldmeijer

(PalArch Foundation, Netherlands)

Abstract

Introduction

The idea of cordage as a separate category of small finds, and the presence of a specialist in it, is a phenomenon that is not often encountered on archaeological excavations. Yet the important role of cordage in society (ancient and modern alike) should allow for such a specialism to be included in archaeological research. The fact that cordage is used to tie, whether it be goats to a gels , meat and fish to a wooden crossbeam or secure the cargo in a ship, is common knowledge, and equally well-known is the fact that sailing inevitably involves the use of cordage. But, for instance, the fact that some ships in ancient Egypt, and indeed in other parts of the world, were and even up to the present day are built literally by 'sewing' the various parts together is one less universally known.

Cordage entails more than linear strands for binding and tying. Netting, for example, used for carrying pottery, for sacks and for fishing, can also be regarded as cordage. Often matting, saddles and pot stands are made entirely of cordage, whereas various other objects such as baskets, brushes, and brooms are made with cordage. Also, many objects, which are not related to basketry or cordage and are put together from various parts such as, for instance, ploughs, use cordage to connect the parts, instead of metal nails, as we would nowadays. Cordage also plays an important part in various other objects, but not to tie, as, for instance, in jar stoppers. In Pharaonic Egypt, land was measured with knotted cordage. The use of cordage with knots as an information carrier is known from various parts of the world, and knots also had a magical aspect in ancient Egypt.

As is evident from the above, cordage is a multi-purpose, multi-functional and, above all, reusable material, which was already in use before man could make other objects that are considered to be of importance to archaeology, such as pottery. One of the oldest examples of cordage dates back to more than 35,000 years BP.[1] An instance of cordage of about 17,000 years old has been found in the Lascaux caves.[2] Unfortunately the preservation of cordage (or any other organic vegetable material) is problematic because of its perishable character. This, obviously, limits the research possibilities. In Egypt, however, the climate is extremely good for the preservation of organic material. Excavation reports often mention the presence, and usually no more than that, of cordage on prehistoric[3]as well as younger sites.[4] None has been studied exhaustively, with the exception of the material from Amarna,[5]Berenike[6] and Myos Hormos,[7]and to a lesser extent, Deir el-Medina.[8] Wendrich[9]discussed the cordage from Qasr Ibrim only in passing but some general information on cordage, basketry and ethno-archaeological research can be found in this study. Studies on the Qasr Ibrim material are currently in preparation.[10] Few isolated studies of cordage have been carried out[11] and research on the depiction of cordage or cordage related scenes is largely limited to Teeter.[12] Some ethnographic or ethno-archaeological work has been done.[13] Finally, Greiss[14] identified the materials from which cordage and basketry were made, without discussing the objects themselves.

The aim of this paper is to discuss the terminology used and present new terms, and, if necessary, revise older terms in order to establish a basic tool box for the study of archaeologically attested cordage.

1. Terminology

Berenike, the Ptolemaic and Roman harbour site, was, according to Pliny the Elder,[15] founded by Ptolemy II Philadelphus in about 275 BCE and named after his mother. The city was most likely founded for the importation of African elephants which were utilised in warfare by the Ptolemaic army. The animals were transported on special ships (elephantagoi) to Berenike on the Egyptian Red Sea coast (figure 1), approximately 800 km south of Suez and 260 km east of Aswan, after which they were transported through the desert to the Nile Valley and through the Valley northwards. But throughout much of the Ptolemaic and Roman period, the town acted as a conduit via trans-desert roads joining the city to emporia on the Nile for other items as well.[16]

The research on the material from Berenike has provided a database of more than 9,000 fragments of cordage, and during the course of its preparation, the need to revise some of the commonly-used terms became apparent.[17] Table 1 shows the different characteristics of cordage, each of which is discussed below. However, one should remember that the focus of the research was archaeologically attested cordage, and consequently, information that could not be obtained from archaeological contexts, such as the production and price, are not discussed or only mentioned in passing.

According to Wendrich[18] cordage is "all vegetable fibres which are worked into long cylindrical strands by all possible techniques as well as products ob­tai­ned by knotting such strands. This definition in­cludes techniques such as plaiting, lucetknitting, and cylindrical weaving. It also includes all forms of netting, needle binding, and objects in which knots play an important role (hob­bles for animals, etc.)." The term 'cylindrical', however, is slightly misleading, since plaiting (or preferably: braiding, see below) results in bands rather than cylindrical strands. Amending the term to 'band' covers this discrepancy. Weaving with spun, plied or cabled cordage is not included because this is a technique without knotting and regarded by Wendrich[19] as basketry. The dividing line between basketry on the one hand and cordage on the other is vague, but nevertheless it can be argued that items, solely made of cordage, can be regarded as cordage rather than basketry. The same can be said about netting. All artefacts made predominantly of plaits or other non-cordage items should be separated from cordage and considered as basketry (the term 'basketry' should include matting which has been made from non-cordage as well, to separate it from cordage).

Plaits should be separated from braids (figures 2 and 3 ). Braids are three or more pieces of linear cordage (yarn/string/rope), interlaced.[20] The definition of plaits by Wendrich[21] is: "Three or more strands interlaced." In order to differentiate between the plaits used in making basketry, which are made of strips (of for instance palm leaf) rather than cordage, 'braids' are considered to be made only of linear cordage including unspun fibres. Thus, cordage is made first, which is then interlaced into a braid in a second production phase. Ashley[22] remarks that 'plait' also means a "fold in cloth" and therefore, to avoid confusion, the term 'braid' is used instead of plait.

Other general terms are 'string' (see table 2), which is a piece of cordage in which two or more yarns are plied, or two or more plies are cabled, into a strand with a diameter less than 10 mm ; and 'rope', which is used for cordage in which two or more yarns are plied, or two or more plies are cabled, into a strand with a diameter of 10 mm or more. These terms are used, regardless of twist or composition. In using the terms 'rope' and 'string' a differentiation between thick and thin cordage is created and further details, such as diameter, are then not required in order to know how thick and, therefore how strong[23] the piece of cordage is. It is also necessary to differentiate the terms 'string' and 'rope' from 'fragment'. The term 'fragment' does not reveal anything about diameter or twist because it is one of three collective terms,'linear fragment', 'identifiable fragment', and 'associated fragment' within the general collective term 'cordage', whereas 'string' and 'rope' give information on diameter. Also, the term is differentiated from the terms 'yarn', 'ply' and 'cable', because these give indica­tions about twist rather than diameter.[24]

1.1. Material (table 1)

The identification of the material is important because it provides information on the origin of the material used; did the material have to be imported or was it locally obtained? Furthermore, it provides information on the original strength of the cordage since some materials are stronger than others. The preference for certain materials might be due to the strength of that material, but this also depends on its availability and price. Unfortunately, the state of preservation at Berenike was often too poor to determine the material at a species level, but the most important materials located there seem to have been halfa grasses (Imperata cylindrica and Desmostachya bipinnata) and the leaf and leaf sheath fibre of the date and doam palm (Phoenix dactylifera and Hyphaene thebaica respectively). All of these products had to be imported, mainly from the Nile Valley , but it remains uncertain whether it was imported as raw material, in a semi-prepared state or as an end product. At least some was brought to Berenike as unprocessed material, since bunches of raw material were encountered, but this could have functioned as stowage as well. Cordage made of hair (goat or hairy sheep[25] ), cotton, flax and wool were also found, the latter three fibres mostly as the result of deteriorated textiles or as fish netting. Cordage made of coconut fibre, though rare, clearly points to contacts with the Indian region as coconut was commonly used for cordage in these areas, but not in Egypt. Other materials encountered are reeds (species of Cyperus and Juncus) and, rarely, leather.

1.2. Appearance (table 1)

Three characteristics cover the aspect 'appearance', but before presenting these, some basic terms need explanation (see table 2). Spun or unspun material made into a strand, creating the first level of a piece of string and rope, regardless of the diameter, is referred to as yarn. Two or more twisted yarns form a ply; a ply is the second level of a string and rope, regardless of the diameter. A strand, which is formed by two or more twisted plies, is referred to as a cable, and is the third level of string and rope, regardless of the diameter. When two or more cables are twisted, a second stage of cabling is created (a fourth level of string and rope), which is called a 'double cable'.[26]

1.2.1. Twist/composition

The twist is the orientation of yarns, plies and cables, visualised by reference to the letters 'z' or 's' (yarns), 'Z' or 'S' (plies),'[Z]' or '[S]' (cable), '{Z}' or '{S}' (double cable). The central stroke of the letter marks the orientation of the twist.

'Composition' refers to the orientation and number of the subsequent levels of the piece. A number following the 'Z' or 'S' shows the number of yarns or plies used. For instance, zS2[Z3] means that two z-spun yarns (2) are twisted in the S-direction. Then three (3) of these plies are cabled in [Z]-direction. The composition of non-plied cordage (yarns) cannot be visualised because yarns are the first level of production. Therefore, with yarns, only the twist is mentioned. Twist and composition not only provide information on the variation and production of cordage but also give insight in strength, because a) alternating cordage (zs or sz) is assumed to be stronger relative to non-alternating cordage (zz or ss), because the alternation of a level locks the previous level; b) the higher the number of yarns and plies the stronger the cordage; and c) cabled cordage is assumed to be stronger than plied cordage. By 'strength', the relative strength of a piece of cordage is meant. A piece of cordage with a diameter larger than 10 mm is stronger than a piece of cordage with a diameter of less than 10 mm. This is oversimplified, since the strength of cordage depends on many variables, and extensive testing is necessary in order to determine its exact strength.

Most of the cordage is made in such a way that the subsequent manufacturing levels have an opposed orientation, called 'alternating'. This means, for plies, a twist of 'sZ' or 'zS' and for cables 'zS[Z]' or 'sZ[S]'. For double cables, alternating means, for instance, 'zS[Z]{S}'. If the various levels are made in the same orientation, the cordage is called 'non-alternating'. This means for plies 'zZ' or 'sS' and for cables two or more levels of the same orientation following directly onto each other­ (e.g.'zZ[S]' or 'zS[S]' and so on). For double cables non-alternating means for instance 'zS[Z]{Z}'. The reason for introducing the terms 'alternating' and 'non-alternating' is to try to avoid a constant repetition of the zS-formulae which would make texts more difficult to read. Furthermore, a constant repetition of formulae increases the possibility of mistakes. Also, it is not always of importance whether a piece is 'zZ' of 'sS'; more important is the fact that it is non-alternating or not.

1.2.2. Diameter

The strength of cordage not only depends on the above-mentioned points. The amount of material used (besides the material itself) is also important. The size terms 'string' and 'rope' have been explained above.

1.2.3. Cord Indices

A formula is used to calculate the Cord Index of Ply (CIP) and Cord Index of Cable (CIC ). The Cord Index (CI) is, quoting Wendrich,[27] "the ratio of the number of twists to the length and diameter of a yarn, string and rope. This ratio is expressed in a number between 0 and 100. The higher the CI, the tighter the rope has been made. This can give an indication of the quality of a rope."

The CIP expresses the tightness of a piece of plied cordage whereas the CIC expresses the tightness of a piece of cabled cordage, and determines how tightly a piece of cor­dage is plied or cabled. Tightness not only determines the flexibility of a piece of cordage but also gives an indication of the strength, along with its material and composition. Cordage with the same composition does not necessarily exhibit the same CIP/CIC , and the reverse is also true; the same CIP/CIC does not mean that the pieces of cordage are made with the same composition. Although it is assumed that cordage with a higher CI but with the same composition, thickness and material, is stronger than cordage with a lower CI, one should take notice that, according to Wendrich[28] "the determination of working load, or breaking strength (tensile strength) of rope is [...] dependent on controllable circumstances, which can only be attained in a well equipped laboratory (Maclean 1982: 162-169)."[29] In other words, although it seems logical that a higher index results in a stronger piece of cordage, it is necessary to test this assumption. Wendrich[30] warns that testing is complicated and expensive because one needs scientific testing material and all testing has to be done under absolutely controllable circumstances. Even when this is possible, one cannot use ancient cordage because, first of all, testing is destructive: "[...] testing of the strength at which rope breaks, by hanging an increasing weight from it."[31] Secondly, the strength of 2,000-year-old material obvi­ously is less than cordage that is recently produced. One needs, therefore, modern cordage made using the ancient technology and the appropriate materials.

It is not possible to calculate CIP/CIC from a substantial part of the cordage corpus because the ply or cable (or both) has loosened over time. This loos­ening is not only due to post-depositional processes, but also to use, which causes a decrease of internal cohesion.

Flexibility depends on the strength of plying and cab­ling as well as the stiffness of the material and is as difficult to determine as strength.[32]

1.3. Features (table 1)

Features are obstructions in cordage, which might give information on its production and application. There are five different types of features distinguished, namely knots, beginnings, loops, kinks and snarls. Obstructions made with cordage (instead of in cordage), such as storage adaptations, are not included.

1.3.1. Knots[33]

Knots are made according to a scheme or plan, and are used to tie and/or to bind, and/or to prevent cordage from slipping and/or fraying. Furthermore, knots can be used decoratively and as carrier of information. They may be part of other complications (but not of kinks, see definition).

Different definitions have been developed to describe knots. According to Ashley[34] knots are:"…all complications in cordage, except accidental ones, such as snarls and kinks, and complications adapted for storage, such as coils, hanks, skeins, balls etc." Wendrich[35] uses another definition: "any construction of string which has been made according to a scheme or plan. In general the scheme or plan is known to several people in a society. This broad definition includes bends, hitches and splices. [… ] More specifically a knot is a knob at the end of a rope, which has the function of stopper.[…]" (Italics in original). The definition given by Ashley does not differentiate between knots as defined above[36]and features that may be regarded as the result of the production of cordage or as necessary to produce cordage, such as beginnings. Furthermore, loops, which are regarded by Ashley as complications, and by Wendrich as constructions, are in some cases the result of tying knots but are not knots themselves. Still these knotted loops are features of cordage, and therefore Wendrich's definition fits better, although her remark that "the scheme or plan was known to several people of a society"[37] is irrelevant. It cannot be known for certain whether a knot that is encountered only once, was known to more people than the person who created it, or whether it was accidental, for instance because the maker was not familiar with the right way of knotting or just made a mistake. Furthermore, a knot that is known to the people of a certain society does not have to be known to the people of another.

Due to the fact that knots often have the same external appearance but are knotted in an entirely different way, they are given different names. However, the way in which a knot extracted from an archaeological context has been knotted cannot be traced. The knots from Berenike have been classified into six basic categories (figures 4-9) with a wide array of forms within these categories: half knots, overhand knots, reef knots, mesh knots, hitches and others.[38]

The variation, together with the quality and application of the knot, gives information as to how the inhabitants were used to working with cordage and whether they had to rely on knots. One can imagine that the proper use of cordage and knots was of utmost importance for fishermen, for instance, but also for those carrying merchandise upon pack animals for the journey to the Nile Valley.

Various terms related to knots also have to be defined. The description of knots is often relatively complicated and therefore difficult to read. This can be simplified by using two terms that differentiate between strands being twisted around each other, called 'crossing', (figure 10) and cordage that is not twisted but runs over other cordage. This is called 'passing'. The term 'crossing' is used rather than 'twisting' in effort to avoid confusion with the term 'twist'.

A bend is a knot that is used to connect two pieces of cordage (yarn, string or rope) to make a longer one, and differs clearly from binding knots which "confine and constrict a single object, or else they hold two or more objects snugly together".[39] Stopper knots are knots which are tied in one piece of cordage to prevent it from fraying and/or from slipping. Fast knots are knots that are used to create a noose (figure 11; for a fast knot see the reef knot in figure 6). Knots which allow a loop to increase or decrease in size and consequently only occur with running loops (figure 12) are referred to as sliding knots. The nautical term 'slip-knot' is deliberately not applied, so as to avoid suggestions of a nautical function for the construction, which often cannot be demonstrated for knots found in the archaeological record.

1.3.2. Beginnings

A beginning is the worked extremity of a piece of cordage that marks the starting or finishing point of plying or cabling. Usually, the recognizable beginning, which marks the starting point, does not show signs of plying or cabling. However, the extremity that marks the finishing point may show such signs because this finishing point, made to lock the ply or cable, is made at the end of the production process.

Apart from the knot as a beginning, other beginnings can also be discerned, referred to as Folding Type (FT). Beginnings which are made by folding the yarns or plies, after which the cordage is respectively plied or cabled, show a small opening that is referred to as the 'eye' (figure 13 ); this always results in a composition with an even number of yarns or plies (FT 1; the most commonly occurring type in Berenike). The eyes are not regarded as loops or nooses because these are intentional; eyes, on the other hand, are a by-product, and thus an accidental result of plying and cabling. However, this does not exclude the use of an eye as a 'loop' (figure 14). The addition of one separate ply results in cordage of which the composition shows an odd number of plies (FT 2; figure 15). Some pieces with an odd number, however, are made by cabling one of the ends, which is the result of the folding of the ply back into the two-strand cable. This type is referred to as FT 3 (figure 16).

1.3.3. Loops

Loops are the part of a piece of cordage in which the two extremities come together intentionally and are closed by a loop lock (see below). This excludes ring-shaped objects because ring-shaped objects are not made in pieces of cordage but rather with cordage. Wendrich[40]defines loops as "the part of a rope in which the two ends are closing in on each other, without crossing […]. Often the term loop is used where loop knot is meant." (Italics in original). Although part of the definition is used at Berenike, some alteration to it has proved necessary. First, 'rope' is replaced by 'pieces of linear cordage' because 'rope' here defines size; using only 'rope' in the definition excludes cordage with a smaller diameter. Second, 'without crossing' is omitted, because crossing does not necessarily influence the loop. In any case, the loop lock is to be regarded as part of the loop. Wendrich[41]refers to the construction that closes the loop as 'loop knot'. Here, this term is replaced by 'loop lock' because not only knots close loops, as the example in figures 14 and 17 show.

Loops can be separated into running loops (figure 12), which can change their size, and nooses (figure 6), which have a fixed size. Both are closed with loop locks. A distinction can be made between the knots used as loop locks, namely sliding knots, which allow a loop to increase or decrease in size without damaging the loop lock and consequently only occur with running loops (figure 12), and fast knots (the reef knot in figure 6) which are used to create a noose.

1.3.4. Kinks

Kinks are curls, crossings or curvings in cordage which are not parts of knots, and which are not due to post-depositional circumstances. Kinks are not necessarily accidental (figure 18).

1.3.5. Snarls

Snarls are accumulations of pieces of cordage that contain (many) knots. This results in complicated patterns for which no function can be ascertained. Often, snarls are the result of use and were cut off and discarded (figure 19).

1.4. Application (table 1)

Studying cordage involves a large amount of material, for the largest part of which it is difficult to understand what function it was meant to serve. However, some pieces give a little insight into its application, although this does not mean that the function is clear. Application can be divided in three groups.

1.4.1. Linear cordage

Linear cordage defines pieces without characteristics that give additional information other than appearance, and without an identifiable or associated function. Fragments might contain knots. This group is by far the largest in Berenike and is likely to be the same at all sites where trash dumps have been excavated.[42]

1.4.2. Associated cordage[43]

Associated cordage is a piece that is used in or with other artefacts. The association of pieces with another artefact, regardless of whether its function is known or not, is regarded as 'open association' (figures 20 and 21 ). 'Open-associated' cordage is not an essential part of the artefact itself but is, rather, associated with the artefact. The 'open-associated' cordage is not necessarily identifiable. The association of cordage that is an essential part of an artefact (without which the artefact would not exist) is regarded as 'closed-associated'. This cordage is always identifiable.[44] The following example should clarify the proposed distinction: carrier baskets, made of palm, are still used in modern Egypt.[45] The street-sweepers, especially in the more rural areas, use them to collect dirt. Often they tie a long string or rope to the handle in order to drag the basket behind them.[46] The bottom is strengthened with palm fibre cordage. The cordage used to make the basket has a closed association, for without it, the plaits could not be connected and therefore the basket would not exist. The handles, because they are an essential part of this type of basket, display a closed association as well. The long piece of cordage tied to the handle, however, has an open association. In the case of observing the basket used this way, the long piece of cordage is identifiable (its function being the towing of the basket). If encountered in an archaeological context, however, the cordage used for towing would not be identifiable as to its function. Other instances of 'closed-associated' cordage are signified by the linear cordage used in netting (figure 22) and bed matting, and also the cordage used to sew two basketry strips together or to make a bag (figure 23).

Some artefact groups are of greater importance for the study of cordage than others. Cordage is often involved in the production of basketry and textiles, and the three groups are often entangled.[47] Soft fibre textiles are mainly made with yarns. Consequently, the yarns that are still part of textiles can be regarded as 'closed-associated' cordage.

1.4.3. Identifiable cordage [48]

The term identifiable cordage is that for which the function may be determined, and gives more information about the fragment than the linear fragments provide. Through this it proves possible to determine a (possible) function of the particular piece. Identifiable fragments are, for instance, fish netting and head/pot stands. An 'identifiable fragment', however, does not necessarily have to be a 'fragment' but might be a complete artefact.

According to Wendrich[49] the term 'netting' is "a general term for all widely spaced techniques made out of cordage. These techniques include knotting with mesh knots, reef knots, overhand bends and half knots. […]". However, 'knotless' techniques are also used to produce netting,[50] which therefore should also be included. 'Widely' is, of course, relative, and depends largely on the function of the netting. In general, but not exclusively, meshes in carriers are much larger than meshes in fish netting and the size of the meshing in the latter (figure 22) depends on the size of fish being caught. Knotless netting shows, in general, a very small, sometimes almost non-existant mesh. A more general definition would be more appropriate: spacious cordage with meshes made by means of knots (mesh knots, reef knots, overhand knots and half knots) or by means or half hitches or non-knots ('knotless netting').

Netting can be used for transporting pottery (figure 24).[51] The term 'sling', sometimes used in connection with pottery transport, should rather be limited to the stone-throwing devices.

Connected with netting is the term 'point of reference' related to reef knots (with which carriers are often made[52] ). The 'point of reference' is the loop which occurs as a result of tying cordage around an object by means of a reef knot, or the opening in netting which is made with reef knots. This 'point of reference' is used to describe the orientation of the knot. Two rules are used for this. The point of reference, the loop, is on the right side and the description by means of 'Z' and 'S' follows the reading direction,i.e. from left to right. In netting, this point is the mesh.[53] The size of the mesh is the diameter value of a circle that is determined by adding the length of the four sides of the mesh and dividing it by 'pi'.[54]

A ring of cordage, made by twisting linear cordage a number of times around itself, is called a 'grommet' (figures 25 and 26 ). No knots or other complications are applied to close the ring. This definition differs from the one used by Wendrich:[55] "A rope ring, made by twisting a strand a number of times around itself. […]", because the term 'rope' here refers to cordage with limited range of diameters whereas cordage used for making grommets can have, theoretically, all diameters. Cordage, which is made into a circular object by any means with the exception of twisting around itself is referred to as a (closed) ring-shaped object (figures 27 and 28).[56] The object may be an open ring or a closed pad. Ring-shaped objects are made by closing a linear piece of cordage by any means (often knotting) to form a circular shape. These are then divided into 'intended' and 'accidental' groupings. The former are made because they are needed whereas the latter are not and are often the result of wear, storage or the like. A pad is considered a closed ring-shaped object.

1.5. Economy

Economy, availability and price cannot be deduced from archaeologically-attested cordage. However, of importance regarding availability is the point already discussed concerning material, i.e. the place from which the raw material originates and the ownership of that material. Future ethno-archaeological research as well as the study of texts might provide insight into the significance of cordage in the local economy.[57]

1.6. Production

Production methods cannot be deduced from cordage from archaeological contexts but information might again be gained from ethno-archaeological research[58]as well as iconographic studies.[59]The way cordage was made, meaning the active production of cordage and how it was spun, plied and cabled, is referred to as 'technique'.

2. Concluding remarks

Cordage is an important artefact category from archaeological excavations, but has been largely neglected thus far. Fortunately, in recent years it has received more attention, although theory-making is still in its infancy. Terminology is often borrowed from the basketry specialist and/or the textile specialist, although the need for its own terminology is apparent. The present paper has no intention to be exhaustive but rather a starting point in providing such terminology from which to refine further the terminology and theories.

Acknowledgements

I thank S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich, the co-directors of the excavations at Berenike for giving me the opportunity to do this research. W.Z. Wendrich and R. van Walsem are acknowledged for reading earlier drafts of the manuscript. I am grateful to S.M. van Roode for her critical evaluation. Special thanks to P.J. Rose, who helped with upgrading the English. I thank E. Endenburg for the production of various figures and A.M. Hense is thanked for figure 1.

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Appendices

Figure 1

Map of Egypt, showing the Ptolemaic and Roman harbour site at Berenike. Map by A.M. Hense. Back

Figure 2

Braid made of unspun bundles of grass (BE96/97-13.002 2280-h-1969). During the 2000 and 2001 seasons many small pieces of this kind of braided cordage were recovered, and may have come from the same piece. Courtesy of the University of Delaware/Leiden University/UCLA Berenike Project.Back

Figure 3

Basketry plaits are made by plaiting small strips, often from palm leaf. This results in a plait that can be sewn to another to form one ongoing strip. Courtesy of the University of Delaware/Leiden University/UCLA Berenike Project. Back

Figure 4

Half knot in a grass zS2 string (BE94/95-1.028 0488-h-0780). An S-half knot ties the string that is secured by means of a stopper knot (Z-overhand, see text). The cordage originates from the fifth to sixth century CE. Scale bar = 30 mm; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer.

Figure 5

The use of overhand knots as the beginning of a cable (see below) is rarely encountered. One clear instance is shown here (BE97-16.s/wbc 4987-h-2455). The goat hair sZ12[S3] rope shows two overhand knots ('I' is a Z-overhand and 'II' an S-overhand), which are knotted on top of each other, after which the plies are cabled. The plies in the knot are not cabled. The cable is very loose. The cordage originates from a fifth to sixth century CE context. Scale bar = 30 mm ; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer.

Figure 6

A soft fibre, zS3 string (BE97-16.041 3397-h-2417) of which the loop is closed with a ZS-reef knot. Because the loop has a fixed size, it is referred to as a noose, and the loop lock as a fast knot. The cordage originates from a fifth to sixth century CE context. Note the end of the string at the bottom of the figure that shows the beginning by the folding of the yarns. Scale bar = 30 mm; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer.

Figure 7

Z-mesh knot (BE94/95-1.029 0449-h-0790). The knot is made by a zS2[Z2] palm laid around a much thicker zS2 grass string and functions as a bend. The cordage originates from a fifth to sixth century CE context. Scale bar = 30 mm; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer.

Figure 8

Grass zS2-composition linear cordage (BE94/95-1.037 0469-h-0561). A second piece of cordage, also a zS2 string, is connected to it by means of a hitch. The cordage originates from a fifth to sixth century CE context. Scale bar = 30 mm; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer.

Figure 9

Instance of a knot, classed in the category 'other'. This very insecure and unreliable Z-granny knot, knotted in a palm zS2 string, is one of two examples of the granny knot encountered in Berenike (BE94/95-1.027 0480-h-0509). The cordage originates from a fifth to sixth century CE context. Scale bar = 30 mm; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer.Back

Figure 10

The difference between crossing and passing simplifies the description of knots and avoids confusion with the production term 'twisting'. Crossing differs from twining in that twining always is around a passive member instead of itself (cf. figure 23). Not to scale. Drawing by E. Endenburg.Back

Figure 11

Noose (BE96/97-13.002 0916-h-1715) formed by putting one of the plies of the cable through the eye, which is the result of folding the ply. The loop is fixed; the eye together with the accompanying part of the ply that is led through the eye functions as loop lock. The cable (sZ2[S2]) is made of goat hair. The cordage originates from a first century CE context. Scale bar = 30 mm ; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Figure 12

Extremity 'I' shows a Z-overhand knot to prevent this end from slipping through the knot. If this end slips through the knot, the running loop disappears entirely and the loop lock (a sliding knot) changes into an overhand knot, as is always the case with half knots when the tied object is removed. Although the loop has no fixed size, the stopper knot limits the increase in size. Palm zS2 (BE96/…-10.008 2978-h-1627). The cordage originates from a late Roman context. Scale bar = 30 mm; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Figure 13

Beginning in cabled cordage referred to as FT 1. This cordage (BE96/…-10.008 2481-h-1152) is made of palm (zS2[Z2]). Note the strange curved appearance of the eye, which is the result of the strong ply. This feature is referred to as kink. The cordage originates from a fifth to sixth century CE context. Scale bar = 30 mm; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Figure 14

Beginning in cabled cordage referred to as FT 1; the eye is used to pull through the other extremity of the string. Grass zS2[S2] cable (BE94/95-1.003 0402-h-0672). The cordage originates from a fifth to sixth century CE context. Scale bar = 30 mm ; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Figure 15

An instance of FT 2 (BE96/97-13.002 1527-h-1927). The cordage originates from a first century CE context. The material is grass. The zS2 ply is folded and a second plied linear piece of cordage, also zS2, is pulled through the eye. The three plies are cabled (zS2[Z3]). The cordage could have been broken from an FT 3 (see figure 16). The second folding then broke off and was not recovered (in Berenike, evidence of separate plies in odd cable compositions is recovered without (identifiable) beginnings). An instance is (BE96/97-13.bc 4985-h-2447). Scale bar = 30 mm; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Figure 16

A piece of cordage that displays evidence of FT 3 (BE94/95-1.012 0435-h-0618[60] ). The zS2 string is folded twice ('1' and '2' in the figure) and the eye is used to tuck in one of the ends (marked '1'). The other extremity ends between the plies. The example is made of grass and originates from a fifth to sixth century CE context. Scale bar = 30 mm ; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Figure 17

Opening a ply and pulling one of the extremities through is also done to create a noose. The example (BE96/97-13.002 0916-h-1715) shows a noose that is formed by putting one of the plies of the cable through the eye that is obtained by folding. The loop is fixed because cabling is continued after that; the eye together with the accompanying part of the ply that is led through the eye functions as a loop lock. The cable (sZ2[S2]) is made of goat hair. The cordage originates from a first century CE context. Scale bar = 30 mm ; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Figure 18

zS2[S2] cable made of palm (BE95/96-6.004 1375-h-0447); another piece is (BE99-31.007 2383-h-3122) (S-spun soft fibre yarns). Fragment (BE96/…-10.001 0572-h-1314) is slightly different but with a comparable appearance. Here, the ply is wound around itself resulting in the same pattern of curling but around a core. The curling of cordage like this is not a result of post-depositional processes and seems to be intentional. It might be the curl of a wig.[61] The cordage originates from a late fourth to early fifth century CE context. Courtesy of the University of Delaware/Leiden University/UCLA Berenike Project. Back

Figure 19

sZ2 string of palm (BE94/95-1.029 0449-h-0794). The cordage contains one Z-overhand knot, marked 'I' in the figure, one figure of eight knot, marked 'II' and one 'other' knot, marked 'III'. No function seems to fit this piece despite the beginning of ply. The cordage originates from a fifth to sixth century CE context. Scale bar = 30 mm; construction drawing not to scale. Drawings by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer.Back

Figure 20

'Open-associated' (and identifiable) linear piece of cordage (BE01-48.020 3520-h-7273). The mouth and part of the neck of a piece of table ware (a wine strainer) has a linear piece of cordage in situ. The zS3 rope has a diameter of ply of 11.2 mm and a diameter of yarn of 5.6 mm, whereas the CIP is 68, all of which clearly indicate that a strong piece of cordage was needed. Due to the bad preservation, the material can be only tentatively determined as grass. The carrier is made of a single piece of cordage. The rope (inset) runs through the handles and the ends are knotted with half knots. The two knots are situated close together, providing a good grip. Besides functioning as a carrier, the strainer could also be hung by the rope and the rope may have been used when pouring the contents. The object originates from a first century CE context. Courtesy of the University of Delaware/Leiden University/UCLA Berenike Project. Scale bar in cm ; construction drawing not to scale. Drawing by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Figure 21

Short pole (BE96/97-13 …-h-3898) from a first century CE context (length 170 mm and average diameter 24 mm ). Most of the bark is still intact. The pole has one broken end and the other is clearly convex. The rope (diameter 21 mm, FT 1 beginning) is a zS3[Z4] cable. The thickness of the rope, the CIP of 94 and the various materials used (mainly palm with inserted goat hair plies) are indications of the need for a strong piece of cordage. The cordage is associated but unidentifiable cordage. This artefact may be one of the two poles of a gels[62] or a pole, standing in the ground, used to tether an animal, although in that case must have been substantially larger. Another way of tying animals is by securing a thick rope in the ground, for instance by means of stones, to which the animals are tied. This method, still in use in the middle of the last century, is also depicted on the walls of mastabas.[63] Scale bar = 30 mm ; construction drawing not to scale. Drawing by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Figure 22

Piece of netting (BE96/97-13.002 1527-h-1962f) with a reinforced edge in the same manner as netting used currently.[64] The cordage originates from a first century CE context. Courtesy of the University of Delaware/Leiden University/UCLA Berenike Project. Scale bar in cm . Back

Figure 23

Open twined bag (BE01-48.018 1989-H-7300), made of folded bundles of grass, twined with zS2 string. The bundles are twined by means of two strings. At the edges, the two strings are cabled, probably to enhance the strength, and the twisting continues in opposite directions (see inset). The opposite edge is also cabled and again the maker changed his working direction. The double length 'mat' thus made is folded and the edges are knotted together with half knots. The strings used for the knotting are of the same appearance and material as the string used to twine. The ends are connected and form the handles, now severely damaged. The linear cordage used to make the bag can be regarded as closed-associated and identifiable. The bag originates from a first century CE context. Courtesy of the University of Delaware/Leiden University/UCLA Berenike Project. Construction drawing not to scale. Drawing by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer.Back

Figure 24

Carrier netting made with mesh knots (BE99-31.sbc 3957-h-3891).[65] The cordage originates from a first century CE context. Courtesy of the University of Delaware/Leiden University/UCLA Berenike Project. Scale bar in cm . Back

Figure 25

A grommet (BE96/…-10.014 2970-h-1598). The grass cable, zS2[Z3], of which the FT 2 beginning is still visible, is twisted around itself. The inside diameter is only 10 mm. The cordage originates from a fifth to sixth century CE context. Scale bar = 30 mm; construction drawing not to scale. Drawing by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Figure 26

Another grommet (BE97-16.s/wbc 4987-h-2454) made of a very small, unspun grass(?) stem, which has an average diameter of 1.5 mm. The strand is wound S-wise in four stages. The inside diameter is only 13.0 mm. The grommet originates from a fifth to sixth century CE context. Scale bar = 10 mm; construction drawing not to scale. Drawing by E. Endenburg/A.J. Veldmeijer.Back

Figure 27

This ring-shaped object (BE00-33.008 1291-h-3636) from a first century CE context, is made of a woody material, probably Arundo donax, a tall bamboo-like reed, and is in perfect condition. The sZ3 cordage has a CIP of 54. Though this is low, the inflexibility of the material does not allow stronger plying. Putting the yarns between the ply has closed the ring. Scale bar = 30 mm. Drawing by A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Figure 28

Accidental ring-shaped object (BE00-33.009 1136-h-3719), dated to the fifth to sixth century CE and made of zZn[S2] soft fibre string.[66] Scale bar = 30 mm . Drawing by A.J. Veldmeijer. Back

Notes

[1] O. Soffer, M. Adovasio, D. Hyland, B. Klima and J. Svoboda, "Perishable Technologies and the Genesis of the Eastern Gravettian", Anthropologie XXXVI/1-2, 1998, pp. 43-68.Back

[2] C. Renfrew and P. Bahn.Archaeology: theories, methods and practice, Thames and Hudson Ltd., London, 1991, p. 343, 383. Back

[3] For instance G. Brunton and G. Caton-Thompson. The Badarian civilisation and prehistoric remains near Badari, Quaritch, London, 1928 and G. Caton-Thompson, "The Neolithic Industry of the Northern Fayum Desert", JRAI 56, 1926, pp. 309-323.Back

[4] For instance J.H. Johnson, "Small objects", in D.S. Whitcomb and J.H. Johnson (eds), Quseir al-Qadim 1980. Preliminary Report, Undena Publications, Malibu (American Research Center in Egypt Reports 7), 1982, pp. 327-344; W.M.F. Petrie, Qurneh, Memoir(s) of the Egypt Exploration Fund (Brit.S.Arch.Eg. 16), London, 1909; D.S. Whitcomb, "Small objects", in D.S. Whitcomb and J.H. Johnson (eds),Quseir al-Qadim 1978. Preliminary Report, American Research Center in Egypt, Princeton/Cairo, 1979, pp. 196-210. Back

[5] W.Z. Wendrich, "Basketry and matting", in S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds), Berenike '96. Report of the excavations at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast) and the survey of the Eastern Desert, Centre of Non-Western Studies (CNWS Publications, special series no. 3), Leiden, 1998, pp. 253-264; W.Z. Wendrich, The world according to basketry: interpretation of basketry production and basket makers in ancient and modern Egypt , Centre of Non-Western Studies (CNWS Publications), Leiden, 1999. In her work on the material from Amarna, W.Z. Wendrich, "Preliminary report on the Amarna basketry and cordage", in B.J. Kemp (ed.), Amarna reports V, Egypt Exploration Society, London, 1989, pp. 169-201, Wendrich discusses cordage separately from basketry. A full statistical treatment however was not presented. The paper on the cordage and basketry of Abu Sha'ar is forthcoming (pers. comm. Wendrich, 2002). Back

[6] A.J. Veldmeijer, "The cordage", in S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds), Berenike '96. Report of the excavations at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast) and the survey of the Eastern Desert, Centre of Non-Western Studies (CNWS Publications, special series no. 3), Leiden, 1998, pp. 237-252; A.J. Veldmeijer, "The cordage", in S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds), Report of the 1997 excavations at Berenike and the survey of the Egyptian Eastern Desert, including excavations at Shenshef, Centre of Non-Western Studies (CNWS Publications, special series no. 4), Leiden, 1999, pp. 257-276; A.J. Veldmeijer, "The cordage [of 2001]", in S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds), Berenike 2001, preliminary report, Los Angeles, Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, in press; A.J. Veldmeijer and S.M. van Roode, "Carrier netting from the Ptolemaic Roman harbour town Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast)", Antiquo Oriente, 2, 2004, pp. 9-25; A.J. Veldmeijer, "Fishing nets from Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast)", Trabajos de Egiptologia, in press. Back

[7] F. Handley, "Basketry, matting and cordage", in D. Peacock, L. Blue, N. Bradford and S. Moser (eds), Myos Hormos - Quseir al-Qadim. A Roman and Islamic port site, University of Southampton, Southampton, 1999, http://www.arch.soton.ac.uk/Projects/projects.asp?Division=1&SubDivision=1&Page=19&ProjectID=20 ; F. Handley, "Basketry, matting and cordage", in D. Peacock, L. Blue, N. Bradford and S. Moser, (eds), Myos Hormos - Quseir al-Qadim. A Roman and Islamic port site, University of Southampton, Southampton, 2000, http://www.arch.soton.ac.uk/Projects/projects.asp?Division=1&SubDivision=2&Page=18&ProjectID=20 ; S. Richardson, "Basketry, matting and cordage", in D. Peacock, L. Blue, N. Bradford and S. Moser (eds), Myos Hormos - Quseir al-Qadim. A Roman and Islamic port site, University of Southampton, Southampton, 2001, http://www.arch.soton.ac.uk/Projects/projects.asp?Division=1&SubDivision=3&Page=19&ProjectID=20 ; S. Richardson, "Basketry, matting and cordage", in D. Peacock, L. Blue and S. Moser (eds), Myos Hormos - Quseir al-Qadim. A Roman and Islamic port site, University of Southampton, Southampton, 2002, http://www.arch.soton.ac.uk/Projects/projects.asp?Division=1&SubDivision=4&Page=18&ProjectID=20 ; S. Richardson , "Basketry, matting and cordage", in D. Peacock, L. Blue and S. Moser (eds), Myos Hormos - Quseir al-Qadim. A Roman and Islamic port site, University of Southampton, Southampton, 2003, http://www.arch.soton.ac.uk/Projects/projects.asp?Division=1&SubDivision=5&Page=15&ProjectID=20 .Back

[8] Y.J.-L. Gourlay, Les sparteries de Deir el-Médineh I. Catalogue des techniques de sparterie, Cairo, Institut Français d'archéologie orientale, 1981 and Y.J.-L. Gourlay, Les sparteries de Deir el-Médineh II. Catalogue des objects de sparterie, Cairo, Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1981. Back

[9] W.Z. Wendrich, The world according to basketry. Back

[10] A.J. Veldmeijer, "Studies of ancient Egyptian footware. Technological aspects. Part I. Cordage footware from Qasr Ibrim", in V.V. Solkin (ed.), [Volume in honour of V.S. Golenischeff], Moskow, Art-Rodnik, accepted; A.J. Veldmeijer, "Netting from Qasr Ibrim", in preparation. Back

[11] D.P. Domning, "Some examples of ancient Egyptian ropework", Chronique d'Égypte, LIL, 1977, pp. 49-61; D.P. Ryan and D.H. Hansen, A study of ancient Egyptian Cordage in the British Museum, British Museum (Occasional Paper no. 62), London, 1987.Back

[12] E. Teeter, "Techniques and terminology of rope making in Ancient Egypt", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 73, 1987, pp. 71-77. Back

[13] N.H. Henein, Mari Girgis, village de haute-Égypte, Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, Cairo, 1988; L. Keimer, "Notes prises chez les Bišarin et les Nubiens d'Assouan; première partie", Bulletin de l 'institut d'Égypte, 32 (1949-1950), 1951, pp. 49-101; W.Z. Wendrich, The world according to basketry .Back

[14] E.A.M. Greiss, "Anatomical identification of plant material from ancient Egypt", Bulletin de l 'institut d'Égypte, 31, 1949, pp. 249-283; E.A.M. Greiss, Anatomical identification of some ancient Egyptian plant materials, Mémoires de l 'Institut d'Égypte (55), Cairo, 1957. Back

[15] Natural History 6.33.168. Back

[16] For a short overview see S.E. Sidebotham, "Historical sources", in S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds),Berenike '94, Preliminary report of the excavations at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast) and the survey of the Eastern Desert, Centre of Non-Western Studies (CNWS Publications, special series no. 1), Leiden, 1995, pp. 5-11.Back

[17] Terminology is based partly on the terminology used by W.Z. Wendrich, "Preliminary report on the Amarna basketry and cordage", and W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, but with various amendments, revisions and critical notes. Back

[18] W.Z. Wendrich, "Preliminary report on the Amarna basketry and cordage", p. 169. Back

[19] W.Z. Wendrich, The world according to basketry. Back

[20] Plaits used to make basketry might be defined as 'three or more strips interlaced'. Back

[21] W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry; a guide to recording basketry and cordage for archaeologists and ethnographers , Centre of Non-Western Studies (CNWS Publications), Leiden, 1991, p. 141. Back

[22] C.W. Ashley, The Ashley book of knots, Doubleday, New York/London/Toronto/Sydney/Auckland, 1993, p. 471. Back

[23] What is meant here is the relative strength of a piece of cordage. A piece of cordage with a diameter larger than 10 mm is stronger than a piece of cordage with a diameter smaller than 10 mm. This is oversimplified because the strength of cordage depends on more variables. Back

[24] There seems to be a dichotomy. One set of terms is based on measurements and the other is based on the twist/composition. However, only one set of criteria, namely that of twist/composition, is used for sorting. Back

[25] J.-P. Wild and F. Wild, "The textiles", in S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds), Berenike '95. Preliminary report of the excavations at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast) and the survey of the Eas­tern Desert, Centre of Non-Western Studies (CNWS Publications, special series no. 2), Leiden, 1996, pp. 245-256; J.-P. Wild and F. Wild, "The textiles", in S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds),Berenike '96. Report of the excavations at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast) and the survey of the Eastern Desert, Centre of Non-Western Studies (CNWS Publications, special series no. 3), Leiden , 1998, pp. 221-236. Back

[26] Cf. W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, p. 32, figure 7. Back

[27] W.Z. Wendrich, "Preliminary report on the Amarna basketry and cordage", pp. 173-174. Back

[28] W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, p. 34, note 6. Back

[29] Reference in original. The reference unfortunately, was not included in the literature list. Back

[30] W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, p. 34. Back

[31] W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, p. 34. Back

[32] W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, p. 34, note 5. Back

[33] See on variation and orientation A.J. Veldmeijer, "Knots, archaeologically encountered: a case study of the material from the Ptolemaic and Roman harbour at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast)", accepted Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, 34 (2005/6); A.J. Veldmeijer and S.M. van Roode, "Carrier netting from Berenike"; A.J. Veldmeijer, "Fishing nets from Berenike"; A.J. Veldmeijer, "'Knotless' netting in ancient Egypt. A reappraisal on the basis of archaeologically attested material from Berenike and Qasr Ibrim", Göttinger Miszellen, 206, 2005, pp. 91-96. Back

[34] C.W. Ashley, The Ashley book of knots, p. 12. Back

[35] W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, p. 139. Back

[36] See also A.J. Veldmeijer, "Knots, archaeologically encountered". Back

[37] W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, p. 139. Back

[38] A.J. Veldmeijer, "Knots, archaeologically encountered"; but see also A.J. Veldmeijer and S.M. van Roode,"Carrier netting from Berenike"; A.J. Veldmeijer, "Fishing nets from Berenike"; A.J. Veldmeijer, "'Knotless' netting in ancient Egypt". Back

[39] C.W. Ashley, The Ashley book of knots, p. 219. Back

[40] W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, p. 140. Back

[41] W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, p. 140. Back

[42] For a statistical description of all cordage see A.J. Veldmeijer, "A basic statistical description of archaeological cordage. A case study of the material from the Ptolemaic and Roman harbour site Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast)", accepted PalArch, series archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology. Back

[43] See also A.J. Veldmeijer, " Identifiable and associated cordage. Examples from Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast)", Antiguo Oriente , in press. Back

[44] Closed associated cordage is always identifiable, but identifiable cordage is not always closed-associated (for instance an isolated pot stand). Back

[45] See for instance W.Z. Wendrich,The world according to basketry . However, for some tasks these are replaced by baskets made of old tyres (zanbil or guffa).Back

[46] Observed by the author in the Farafra Oasis (June 1996). Back

[47] For instance: can bed matting be regarded as a study object for the basketry and matting specialist or the cordage specialist, or both? Needless to say a holistic approach is preferred.Back

[48] See also A.J. Veldmeijer,"Identifiable and associated cordage. Examples from Berenike"; for comments on the cordage sandal from Berenike see A.J. Veldmeijer, "Cordage footwear from Qasr Ibrim". Back

[49] W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, p. 140. Back

[50] W.Z. Wendrich, "Basketry and matting", pp. 262-263; A.J. Veldmeijer, "Netting from Qasr Ibrim"; Veldmeijer own obs.; A.J. Veldmeijer, "'Knotless' netting in ancient Egypt". Back

[51] A.J. Veldmeijer and S.M. van Roode, "Carrier netting from Berenike". Back

[52] A.J. Veldmeijer, "The cordage"; A.J. Veldmeijer, "Knots, archaeologically encountered"; A.J. Veldmeijer and S.M. van Roode, "Carrier netting from Berenike". Back

[53] A.J. Veldmeijer, "Knots, archaeologically encountered". Back

[54] W.Z. Wendrich, Who is afraid of basketry, p. 87. Back

[55] W.Z. Wendrich, The world according to basketry, p. 462. Back

[56] Closed ring-shaped objects are usually referred to as 'pad'. Back

[57] For more information on this see W.Z. Wendrich, The world according to basketry. Back

[58] W.Z. Wendrich, The world according to basketry. Back

[59] See for instance E. Teeter,"Techniques and terminology of rope making in Ancient Egypt". Back

[60] W.Z. Wendrich and A.J. Veldmeijer, "Cordage and basketry", in S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds),Berenike '95. Preliminary report of the excavations at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast) and the survey of the Eastern Desert, Centre of Non-Western Studies (CNWS Publications, special series no. 2), Leiden, 1996, pp. 269-296.Back

[61] J. Fletcher, "Hair", in P.T. Nicholson and I. Shaw (eds), Ancient Egyptian materials and technology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000, pp. 495-504; A. Lucas, "Ancient Egyptian wigs", ASAE XXX, 1930, pp. 190-196. Back

[62] N.H. Henein. Mari Girgis, village de haute-Égypte, p. 192. Back

[63] L. Keimer, "Notes prises chez les Bišarin et les Nubiens d'Assouan; première partie", pp. 49-101. Back

[64] For more information on fishing nets see A.J. Veldmeijer, "Fishing nets from Berenike". Back

[65] A.J. Veldmeijer and S.M. van Roode, "Carrier netting from the Ptolemaic Roman harbour town Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea coast)". Back

[66] See A.J. Veldmeijer,"Identifiable and associated cordage". Back